Only in Lebanon
Nahr al-Kalb (Dog River) meaning Lycus of the Romans, contains 17
historical inscriptions dating back to 1290 B.C
commemorating Egyptian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Greek, Roman
and Arab historical events.
The Assyrians and Romans built a road and a bridge to
overcome the steep cliffs, which made the area an
In modern times a tunnel was built through the rock to
accommodate the coastal highway, which changed the historic
aspect of the site. Ramses II left three inscriptions
between 1290 and 1224 BC, when he marched into Phoenicia.
Five steles mark expeditions made by Assyrian kings. In
Roman times the third Gallic Legion under Emperor Caracalla
(211-217 AD) left a stele marking road work carried out
There are two inscriptions in Greek. One of them was
accomplished in 382 by Proclus, Byzantine governor of
Phoenecia under Theodose the Grand (388-395). Another stele
commemorates the expedition that Napoleon III sent to
Lebanon in 1860-1861.
Among the 20th century inscriptions, one records that French
troops under General Gouraud took Damascus in 1920. Two
others dated 1919 and 1930 report that the British Desert
Corps took Damascus, Homs and Aleppo in October 1918. The
British and French occupation of Beirut and Tripoli in
October 1918 is recorded as well.
Another plaque commemorates the independence of Lebanon, and
the end of the French Mandate.